We use cookies to understand how you use our site and to improve your experience. This includes personalizing content and advertising. To learn more, click here. By continuing to use our site, you accept our use of cookies. Cookie Policy.

Features Partner Sites Information LinkXpress
Sign In
Advertise with Us

Download Mobile App


ATTENTION: Due to the COVID-19 PANDEMIC, many events are being rescheduled for a later date, converted into virtual venues, or altogether cancelled. Please check with the event organizer or website prior to planning for any forthcoming event.
24 Feb 2021 - 28 Feb 2021
Virtual Venue
03 Mar 2021 - 05 Mar 2021
Virtual Venue

Flow Cytometry Employed in Diagnosing Male Urethritis

By LabMedica International staff writers
Posted on 17 Dec 2020
Print article
Image: The UF-500i fully automated urine particle analyzer (Photo courtesy of Sysmex Corporation).
Image: The UF-500i fully automated urine particle analyzer (Photo courtesy of Sysmex Corporation).
According to the established guidelines, diagnosis of non-gonococcal urethritis should be confirmed by demonstrating polymorphonuclear leukocytes from the anterior urethra using a Gram-stained (GSS) or methylene blue-stained urethral smear.

There are several methods for detecting these infections. In recent years, new technologies have emerged in the field of urinalysis methodology, offering quick and standardized opportunities in everyday clinical practice. However, there is only limited information about how to use flow cytometry in diagnosing male urethritis.

Medical Andrologists and their colleagues at Tartu University Hospital (Tartu, Estonia) recruited 306 male patients with infectious urethritis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium and/or Trichomonas vaginalis. The control group consisted of 192 patients without uro-genital complaints, negative tests for C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, M. genitalium and T. vaginalis from first-voided urine and no inflammation in first-voided urine, mid-stream urine and urine after prostate massage.

The concentration and total count of white blood cells and bacteria in urine were analyzed using urine flow cytometry. The analyses were performed using fully automated urine particle analyzer Sysmex UF-500i (Sysmex Corporation, Kobe, Japan). Urethritis-associated sexually transmitted infections (STIs were detected from the first-voided urine using a PCR method: C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae DNA by cobas 4800 CT/NG Test (Roche Diagnostics, Risch-Rotkreuz, Switzerland); M. genitalium DNA /Mycoplasma genitalium Real-TM; T. vaginalis DNA by Trichomonas vaginalis Real-TM (Sacace Biotehnologies, Como, Italy).

The investigators reported that the most prevalent infection was chlamydia (64.1%), followed by Mycoplasma genitalium (20.9%), gonorrhoea (7.8%) and trichomoniasis (1.6%). Gonorrhoea caused the highest flow-cytometric leucocyte/bacteria count, followed by chlamydia and Mycoplasma genitalium. Trichomonas vaginalis showed nearly absent inflammation in first-voided urine. Using an empiric flow-cytometry diagnostic threshold for urethritis in first-voided urine (leucocytes ≥ 15/μL and bacteria ≥ 20/μL), the total calculated sensitivity was over 90%. However, when applying such criteria for deciding whether to perform first-voided urine PCR for C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, M. genitalium and T. vaginalis or not, the team could miss 23 cases with infectious urethritis that makes up 7.5% of all proven cases.

The authors concluded that C. trachomatis (CT) is the most prevalent urethritis-associated STI among the men consulting an andrologist, followed by M. genitalium (MG). A strong inflammatory reaction accompanied by high bacterial concentration in first-voided urine as revealed by flow cytometry is highly predictive of NG infection (sensitivity >95%), while the sensitivity of this method remains slightly lower for CT and MG (>92%) and very low for infrequently occurring T. vaginalis. The study was published on December 2 2020 in the journal PLOS ONE.

Related Links:
Tartu University Hospital
Sysmex Corporation
Roche Diagnostics
Sacace Biotehnologies

Print article


Molecular Diagnostics

view channel
Image: Blood smear from a P. falciparum culture: several red blood cells have ring stages inside them while close to the center is a schizont and on the left a trophozoite (Photo courtesy of Wikimedia Commons)

Panel of MicroRNAs Differentiates Uncomplicated and Severe Malaria in Children

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which are rapidly released from damaged tissues into the host fluids, constitute a promising biomarker for the prognosis of severe malaria. MiRNAs comprise a class of about 20 n... Read more


view channel
Image: The Leica Bond III stainer is fully automated Immunohistochemical and In Situ Hybridization (IHC and ISH stainer) (Photo courtesy of Leica Biosystems).

Mismatch Repair/Microsatellite Instability Evaluated Using Cytology Effusion Specimens

DNA mismatch repair (MMR) status is routinely assessed in colorectal and endometrial carcinoma as a method of cancer prevention, surveillance in patients with Lynch syndrome and their families, and for... Read more


view channel
Image: BioProfile FLEX2 Cell Culture Analyzer (Photo courtesy of Nova Biomedical)

Nova Biomedical Adds Sample Retain Collector to BioProfile FLEX2 Cell Culture Analyzer

Nova Biomedical (Waltham, MA, USA) has added a Sample Retain Collector (SRC) for its BioProfile FLEX2 automated cell culture analyzer which measures up to 16 tests including pH, gases, metabolites, osmolality,... Read more
Copyright © 2000-2021 Globetech Media. All rights reserved.