We use cookies to understand how you use our site and to improve your experience. This includes personalizing content and advertising. To learn more, click here. By continuing to use our site, you accept our use of cookies. Cookie Policy.

Features Partner Sites Information LinkXpress
Sign In
Advertise with Us
Technopath Clinical Diagnostics - An LGC Company

Download Mobile App




Events

ATTENTION: Due to the COVID-19 PANDEMIC, many events are being rescheduled for a later date, converted into virtual venues, or altogether cancelled. Please check with the event organizer or website prior to planning for any forthcoming event.

T-Cells with CD20 Protein Marker May Drive Early Multiple Sclerosis

By LabMedica International staff writers
Posted on 03 Nov 2021
Print article
Image: Histopathology of Multiple Sclerosis showing demyelination; decoloration in the area of the lesion can be observed using Klüver-Barrera myelin staining (Photo courtesy of Marvin 101)
Image: Histopathology of Multiple Sclerosis showing demyelination; decoloration in the area of the lesion can be observed using Klüver-Barrera myelin staining (Photo courtesy of Marvin 101)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a condition that can affect the brain and spinal cord, causing a wide range of potential symptoms, including problems with vision, arm or leg movement, sensation or balance. It's a lifelong condition that can sometimes cause serious disability, although it can occasionally be mild.

While the cause of MS is unclear, the underlying mechanism is thought to be either destruction by the immune system or failure of the myelin-producing cells. Proposed causes for this include genetics and environmental factors, such as viral infections. MS is usually diagnosed based on the presenting signs and symptoms and the results of supporting medical tests.

A team of scientists led by the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, PA, USA) conducted detailed analyses of the immune cells found in the blood of MS patients before and after starting on ocrelizumab for the first time. The cells of two patient groups were analyzed: a set of 23 individuals with either relapsing-remitting (RRMS) or primary progressive disease PPMS who had not received prior therapy, and another group of 35 patients with RRMS. Phenotypic and functional immune profiles were comprehensively assessed by multi-parametric flow cytometry in high-quality cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).

The investigators reported that the results from both sets of patients were generally similar, with the anti-CD20 therapy leading to a sharp decrease in numbers of B-cells, as expected. The treatment also had marked effects on T-cells, of which there are two main types. One, known as CD8+ T-cells, is a type of cell that is able to kill other cells, for example, cancer cells or cells infected with a virus. By contrast, CD4+ T-cells, the other type, mainly act by helping to coordinate the activity of other components of the immune system, including B-cells. By analyzing specific markers on and in the cells, the team deduced that both the CD4+ and the CD8+ T-cells removed by anti-CD20 therapies were generally pro-inflammatory.

Furthermore, the removed cells showed evidence of being able to get into the central nervous system or CNS, comprised of the brain and spinal cord. The body has several systems in place that normally tightly control which immune cells are able to get into the CNS. Additional analyses showed that most CD8+ T-cells that were removed by ocrelizumab treatment expressed CD20; in other words, it’s likely that the treatment was directly killing these cells. By contrast, CD4+ depletion was not fully explained by the direct effects of targeting CD20.

The authors concluded that their study provided novel insights into both the mode of action of anti-CD20 and mechanisms underlying MS relapse biology. They distinguished the impact of anti-CD20 on CD8+ T cells (largely direct removal of CD20-expressing cells), versus the impact of anti-CD20 on CD4+ T cells (a combination of direct removal, and indirect effects, presumably through depletion of B cells resulting in their diminished in vivo interactions with the CD4+ T cells). The strong inverse correlation with disease activity suggests that CD20-expressing CD8+ T cells leaving the circulation (possibly to the CNS) participate in early encephalitogenic events involved in MS relapse development. The study was presented at the Virtual 37th Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis held October 13-15, 2021 (ECTRIMS).

Related Links:
University of Pennsylvania

Gold Supplier
Clinical Chemistry Reagents
SEKURE Clinical Chemistry Reagents
New
Silver Supplier
3-Part Hematology Analyzer
DH26
New
Gold Supplier
NT-proBNP Quantitative Antigen Test
NT-proBNP-CHECK-1
New
Chemistry Analyzer
NB-201

Print article

Channels

Industry

view channel
Image: QIAGEN has acquired a majority stake in enzymes provider BLIRT S.A. (Photo courtesy of QIAGEN)

Qiagen Acquires Enzymes Provider Blirt to Strengthen Sample Technologies Business

QIAGEN N.V. (Venlo, Netherlands) has signed agreements to acquire a 96% majority ownership stake in BLIRT S.A. (Gdansk, Poland), a manufacturer of recombinant enzymes for the life science industry.... Read more
Copyright © 2000-2022 Globetech Media. All rights reserved.