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Biosensor Detects Brain Tumors with Less Than a Drop of Blood

By LabMedica International staff writers
Posted on 29 Sep 2022
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Image: A new biosensor could precisely diagnose brain cancer from minute blood sample (Photo courtesy of Unsplash)
Image: A new biosensor could precisely diagnose brain cancer from minute blood sample (Photo courtesy of Unsplash)

Despite significant advances, mortality from brain tumors remains high with five-year survival rates of 36%. More accurate diagnoses might improve the situation. To effectively treat brain cancer, physicians need to not only confirm the presence of a malignant tumor but also identify whether it originated there (primary tumor) or moved to the brain (secondary tumor) from other organs. Physicians also need to know where in the organ the tumor is located. However, tissue biopsies are invasive and can miss important information about a tumor’s make-up. Imaging-based methods, meanwhile, do not offer sufficient sensitivity and resolution. Now, researchers have developed a biosensor that could help physicians precisely diagnose brain cancer from a minute blood sample.

In order to develop a noninvasive test using a tiny amount of serum that would avoid surgery or a painful spinal tap, researchers at the Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Science and Technology (I BEST, Toronto, Canada) used high-intensity laser beams to form 3D nickel-nickel oxide nanolayers on a nickel chip. This process resulted in an ultrasensitive biosensor that allowed them to detect minute amounts of tumor-derived materials, such as nucleic acids, proteins and lipids, that made it through the blood-brain-barrier into the circulation. The sensor detected these components using a method known as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, which generated molecular profiles, or fingerprints, for each sample. The researchers then analyzed these profiles with a DEEP neural network to find evidence of a brain tumor and define its type, as well as predict its location within the brain.

Using the liquid biopsy platform, the researchers could detect brain cancer from just five microliters of blood serum, and they could distinguish it from breast, lung and colorectal cancer with 100% specificity and sensitivity. They had similar success distinguishing primary brain tumors from secondary tumors that had metastasized to the brain from the lung or breast. Profile analysis also allowed the researchers to determine in which of nine brain compartments the tumor resided with 96% accuracy. The noninvasive nature of the test should allow healthcare specialists to monitor cancer development over time so they can make better treatment decisions, the researchers say.

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